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How to Make ‘Cash Plus’ Work: Linking Cash Transfers to Services and SectorsThe broad-ranging benefits of cash transfers are now widely recognized. However, the evidence base highlights that they often fall short in achieving longer-term and second-order impacts related to nutrition, learning outcomes and morbidity. In recognition of these limitations, several ‘cash plus’ initiatives have been introduced, whereby cash transfers are combined with one or …
Promoting child- and gender-sensitive outcomes in cash transfer programmes: a review of different strategies in programme administrationThe paper is a Policy Research Brief by the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, jointly supported by the United Nations Development Programme and the Government of Brazil. The  paper promotes child and gender sensitive outcomes in cash transfer programmes and links cash transfers to services and sectors. Taking the …
Supporting Social Protection SystemsSocial protection is defined as a broad range of public, and sometimes private, instruments to tackle the challenges of poverty, vulnerability and social exclusion. Increasingly, social protection measures are being used to mitigate vulnerabilities as they occur across the human life cycle, to maintain dignity, to promote the rights of individuals and to …
Social transfers: in the fight against hungerHunger is an outcome of food insecurity. It describes a situation where dietary intake is below the minimum dietary energy requirement. A total of 925 million people are still estimated to suffer from hunger in 2010, representing almost 16 % of the population of developing countries (FAO, 2010). While the number of …
Social protection: An Effective and Sustainable Investment in Developing CountriesA  comprehensive  and  effective  social  protection  system  is  an  essential  component   of  a  market  economy.  The  success  of  developed  countries  has  –  in  part  –  been  the   result  of  their  investments  in  social  protection.  On  average,  OECD  countries  spend   around  14%  of  GDP  on  their  national  social …
Social Transfers and Child ProtectionThe paper assesses the available evidence on the potential effects of social transfers on child protection outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: the negative outcomes or damaging exposure of children to violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect, and improved outcomes or a reduction in exposure to these phenomena. The study identifies …
A Review of the Literature – The Impact of Social Protection on ChildrenSocial protection is particularly important for children, in view of their higher levels of vulnerability compared to adults, and the role that social protection can play in ensuring adequate nutrition, access to and utilization of social services. While existing evidence shows that social protection programmes successfully address several dimensions of …
Labour Market Effects of a Female Stipend Programme in BangladeshBangladesh's female secondary education stipend programme was one of the first conditional cash transfer programmes in the world. While numerous studies have investigated the impacts of such programmes on school enrolment, attendance and learning, less attention has been paid to their long-term labour market effects. This article extends the literature …
Nutrition and Social ProtectionThis document analyses linkages and complementarities between social protection and nutrition, laying out the common ground between the two. It identifies general principles which should guide the design and implementation of social protection interventions in order to maximize their positive impact on nutrition. Common social protection instruments are analysed for …
Making Sustainable Development Work at all Ages: Eradicating Poverty and Promoting Prosperity for Older PersonsYou are cordially invited to the High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development side event entitled “Making Sustainable Development Work at All Ages: Eradicating Poverty and Promoting Prosperity for Older Persons”. Since the launch of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, particular attention has been paid to the goal of eradicating …
ABCD of Social Protection in BangladeshThe poor and vulnerable groups cannot cope with the risks and vulnerability only with their own efforts. They need external supports to emancipate from poverty by breaking its vicious circle. The social safety net programmes provide some impetus to drive them out of poverty but in the process the poor …
জাতীয় সামাজিক নিরাপত্তা কৌশল: বাংলাদেশবাংলাদেশ সরকার দেশের দারিদ্র্য ও বৈষম্য হ্রাসে এবং জনসাধারণের জীবনমানের উন্নয়নে দৃঢ় অঙ্গীকারবদ্ধ। সরকারের এ অঙ্গীকার বিধৃত হয়েছে রূপকল্প ২০২১, প্রেক্ষিত পরিকল্পনা (২০১০-২০২১) এবং ষষ্ঠ পঞ্চবার্ষিক পরিকল্পনা (২০১১-২০১৫) দলিলে। এ প্রতিশ্রুতির অভীষ্ট লক্ষ্য হলো দারিদ্র্য হ্রাসে ইতোমধ্যে অর্জিত অগ্রগতিকে ভিত্তি করে এগিয়ে যাওয়ার পাশাপাশি দারিদ্র্যের প্রকৃত কারণ উদ্ঘাটন ও তার …
National Social Security Strategy (NSSS) of BangladeshThe Government of Bangladesh is strongly committed to reducing poverty, improving human development and reducing inequality. This commitment is reflected in Vision 2021, the Perspective Plan 2010-2021 and in the Sixth Five Year Plan FY11-FY15. The Government seeks to build on past progress with poverty reduction and further deepen this …
THE WORLD BANK 2012-2022 SOCIAL PROTECTION AND LABOR STRATEGYThe World Bank’s social protection and labor practice will help countries move from fragmented approaches toward more coherent systems for social protection and labor, and help to make these more responsive, productive and inclusive. Click on the image to view
Shiree Changemaker Study: Extreme Poverty Series Vol. 4The shiree Changemaker Study aims to survey the understanding, perception and and activism of major Bangladeshi policymakers (mainly politicians and bureaucrats) in the area of extreme poverty, Essentially, shiree wants to gauge if there is a sensitivity or an accurate appreciation of extreme poverty issues by those people must able …
Bangladesh: Bolstering Governance to Reduce PovertyBangladesh has long been a paradox. On the one hand the country’s burden of poverty is enormous: about 40 percent of its 158 million people live below the poverty line, compounded by challenges due to repeated natural disasters, weak governance and the confrontational politics of its very young democratic system. …
REPORT ON WELFARE MONITORING SURVEY-2009Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics has conducted Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS) in March 2009. The Objectives of the WMS were to collect some core welfare indicators for assessing the poverty situation of the country excluding the income and expenditure dimension of poverty assessment. It is worth mentioning that traditional Household income …
Bangladesh – Country Profile – Legatum InstituteBangaldesh - Country Profile - Legatum Institute Click on the image to view
Bangladesh – poverty headcount ratioThe value for Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (PPP) (% of population) in Bangladesh was 76.54 as of 2010. As the graph below shows, over the past 26 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 92.99 in 1992 and a minimum value of 76.54 in 2010. Click …
Assets and poverty traps in rural BangladeshThis paper applies Carter and Barrett’s theory of assets poverty traps to a unique longitudinal survey from rural Bangladesh. Non-parametric and parametric methods are used to examine the shape of the dynamic asset frontier, the number of equilibria, and whether land and nonland assets stock converge to such equilibria.  We …
Asset-based Approaches to Poverty Reduction in a Globalized ContextTh is working paper provides a brief introduction to asset-based approaches to poverty reduction in a globalized context. Th e aim is to show the added value of asset-based approaches, in terms of both better understanding poverty and developing more appropriate long-term poverty reduction solutions. Th e paper draws on …
An Analysis of Institutions and Policy Processes for Selected Antipoverty Interventions in BangladeshThis study attempts to provide an understanding of how the process of institutional change influences the outcomes of interventions. To better understand the context in which these interventions took place, the study examines the institutional aspects of new agricultural technology interventions and the policy processes of food- and cash-based education …
An Overview of How Livelihoods is Changing in Rural BangladeshThe phrase ‘rural Bangladesh’ no longer means what it once did. We believe it to be out of date as the distinction between urban and rural life is no longer clear cut. Powerful external economic forces, including those of globalisation and the expansion of physical infrastructure – especially roads and …
Affordability to Finance Poverty Reduction ProgramsTrapped in the realm between market failure and social justice, Bangladesh’s objective of alleviating poverty is marred by its inability to mobilize enough domestic resources to launch large-scale anti-poverty programs. Moreover, this inability is further strained by the accumulation of large domestic, and more importantly, foreign debt, along with a …
Accessing and Retaining Access to the Sandbars by the Extreme Poor: Experiences from the Practical Action ProjectA variety of means and mechanisms have been recommended to assist with the implementation of projects aimed at allowing the extreme poor to cross the lower poverty line. The Practical Action approach argues that to deal with extreme poverty, one potentially effective method is to equip households with technology that …
Access to Education and Employment: Implications for PovertyThe paper explores the linkages between ‘Education’ and ‘Poverty’ and the possibility of poverty reduction through better employment opportunities. The paper proceeds with the understanding that poverty acts as both cause and effect of a lack of education. In particular, the paper examines whether education is contributing to poverty reduction …
Rural Poverty Dynamics 2005/2006: Evidence from 64-Village Census PlusThis report addresses the recent dynamics of poverty in rural Bangladesh with particular focus on two groups of the poorest - the chronically poor and the extreme poor - based on the 64-village census plus survey conducted under the Programme for Research on Chronic Poverty in Bangladesh (Phase II). In …
New Statistics: 25 million in extreme povertyThis year two major reports came out of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) which, when put together, tell a story about the state of the nation. The first was a preliminary report on the "Household Income & Expenditure Survey (HIES), 2010." The second was the preliminary results of the …
CONDITIONAL CASH TRANSFERS – A World Bank Policy Research ReportCOnditiOnal Cash transfers (CCts) are prOgrams that transfer cash, generally to poor households, on the condition that those households make prespecified investments in the human capital of their children. health and nutrition conditions generally require periodic checkups, growth monitoring, and vaccinations for children less than 5 years of age; perinatal …
Successful Targeting? Reporting Efficiency and Costs in Targeted Poverty Alleviation ProgrammesEconomic, moral and political reasons may underlie the choice between targeting and universal models of social provision. In the debate about universal versus targeted solutions for combating poverty and social exclusion, many have called for targeted interventions, arguing that they are an effective way to reach the poor while maintaining …
Social Safety Nets in Bangladesh: Ground Realities and Policy ChallengesRecent years have seen a perceptible increase in interest in social safety nets with in developing countries. Although many critics have questioned social safety-nets as something politically expedient, stigmatizing and highly inadequate to prime concerns of the poor, the necessity of such nets was never really discarded in practice. However, …
Social Protection in Low Income Countries and Fragile Situations: Challenges and Future DirectionsDemand for social protection is growing in low income countries and fragile situations. In recent  years, the success of social protection (SP) interventions in middle income countries (MICs) like  Brazil  and  Mexico,  along  with  the  series  of  food,  fuel,  and  financial  crises,  has  prompted  policymakers in low income countries (LICs) …
Building a Targeting System for Bangladesh based on Proxy Means TestingThis paper develops and discusses a Proxy Means Test (PMT) based household targeting system for Bangladesh.  The PMT model derived from household survey data includes observable and verifiable characteristics on (i) household demographics and characteristics of household head; (ii) ownership of assets; (iii) housing quality, and access to facilities and …
Productive Role of Safety NetsThe paper contains a framework for linking social protection with growth and productivity, an  updated review of the literature, new original work filling in gaps in the available evidence, and a  discussion  of  operational  implications.  The  paper  demonstrates  that  there  was  a  shift  in  the  economists’ view on social protection, …
Social Safety Nets in Bangladesh: Review of Issues and Analytical InventoryRecent years have seen a perceptible increase in interest on social safety nets in developing countries. The emergence of such a policy focus has been underscored by the growing realization of the significance of risk and vulnerability in defining the poverty condition and the concomitant need to protect the poor …
Employment Generation for the Hardcore Poor and National Service: Challenges of Effective ImplementationDeveloping and least developed countries suffer from high rate of unemployment and poverty. Additionally, they are vulnerable to external shocks and natural disasters. Given the resource constraint, it is difficult for governments of these countries to ensure employment and income to all. This compels governments to resort to targeted programmes …
Does India’s Employment Guarantee Scheme Guarantee EmploymentIn 2005 India introduced an ambitious national antipoverty program, now called the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. The program offers up to 100 days of unskilled manual labor per year on public works projects for any rural household member who wants such work at the stipulated minimum wage …
Targeting the Poorest: An assessment of the proxy means tests methodologyThe purpose of this study is to help AusAID staff, their counterparts in partner governments and others working in the field of social protection to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of a targeting methodology known as the proxy means test (PMT). As social protection practitioners search for effective ways …
Conditional Cash Transfers: A ‘Pathway to Women’s Empowerment’Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs)  provide mothers of school-age children in extreme poverty with a cash subsidy conditional on their children's attendance at school and health clinics. This paper builds on the author's earlier gender analysis and critique of these programmes by examining evaluations of CCTs in order to assess the …
Improving Access to Jobs and Earnings OpportunitiesThroughout the developing world there is a growing demand for advice on the design of policies to  facilitate access of the most vulnerable individuals to jobs, while reducing their dependency from  public income support schemes. Even though these policies are common to both the activation and  graduation agendas, a separation …
Richer but resented: What do cash transfers do to social relations and does it matter?Cash transfer interventions form increasingly important parts of social protection systems in most countries. Usually, cash transfers are evaluated against their first order effects on poverty or human capital, with their impact on social relations within and between households often relegated to discrete comments on „stigma‟, „resentment‟, and sharing, such …
Unveiling Social Safety NetsInterest in safety nets and social protection is growing exponentially. Ways of strengthening the mare called for in high-level statements, researched in academic articles, and implemented by practitioners. Such developments are encouraging and may help to shed light on some longstanding humanitarian and development challenges. The concept remains controversial, however,and …
The Poverty Impact of Rural Roads: Evidence from BangladeshThe rationale for public investment in rural roads is that households can better exploit agricultural and non-agricultural opportunities to employ labor and capital more efficiently. But significant knowledge gaps remain as to how opportunities provided by roads actually filter back into household outcomes and their distributional consequences. This paper examines …
The Growth Report Strategies for Sustained Growth and Inclusive DevelopmentSince 1950, 13 economies have grown at an average rate of 7 percent a year or more for 25 years or longer. At that pace of expansion, an economy almost doubles in size every decade. This report is about sustained, high growth of this kind: its causes, consequences, and internal …
The gender wage gap in BangladeshThis study utilizes the 2007 Bangladesh Occupational Wage Dataset to investigate determinants of earnings and to estimate gender wage differentials in a large sample of non-agricultural workers in the country. The Mincerian regression model and Blinder-Oaxaca wage decomposition model are utilized to estimate and decompose the observed gender earnings gaps into the …
Social transfers and chronic poverty: Objectives, design, reach and impactIn the first decade of the new century, social protection has emerged as a new paradigm for antipoverty policy thinking in the global South. Social protection programmes are currently reaching, and helping change, the lives of more than 860 million people worldwide. This reflects an emerging consensus that eradicating world …
Social Protection Research Scoping StudyThe report sets out an agenda for future research on social protection in low income countries. It does this by first examining the current state of knowledge on social protection, second identifying knowledge gaps and emerging issues, third considering the scope and content of a potential research programme, and fourth …
Social Protection and Climate Change AdaptionSocial protection initiatives are as much at risk from climate change as other development approaches. They are unlikely to succeed in reducing poverty if they do not consider both the short and long-term shocks and stresses associated with climate change. By exploring linkages between climate change adaptation and social protection …
Macroeconomic Implications of Social Safety Nets in the Context of BangladeshSocial safety net is a measure taken by the government in order to prevent the vulnerable section of its population to fall beyond a certain level of poverty. Social safety net programmes (SSNPs) are designed with the aim to provide support for the vulnerable section of the society. With a …
Macro Crises and Targeting Transfers to the PoorA central question for policy makers concerned to help the poor through a macro crisis is how to target scarcer resources at a time of greater need. Technical arguments suggest that finer targeting, through tightening individual programs or reallocating resources towards more tightly targeted programs, uses resources more efficiently for …
Reaching the Poorest: Lessons from the Graduation ModelMicrofinance is about extending financial access to poor and excluded people. However, apart from a few notable exceptions, microfinance has not typically reached extremely poor people—those at the lowest level of the economic ladder.1 The majority of the world’s estimated 150 million microcredit clients are thought to live just below …
Inclusive Development: Two Papers on Conceptualization, Application, and the ADB PerspectiveThis compendium brings together two companion papers on inclusive development. The first paper uses the global literature to formulate a conceptualisation of inclusive development and inclusive growth, and to put the conceptualisation through its paces by applying it to the specific case of donor assistance to rural infrastructure. The second …
Impact of Infrastructures on Paid Work Opportunities and Unpaid Work Burdens on Rural Women in BangladeshThe study deals with two questions: what role infrastructures can plan in promoting paid work opportunities for women and what specific type of infrastructure can reduce women's time burden? The study brings empirical evidence on these two questions in a specific country context. Findings from an economic model that endogenises …
Conceptualizing Chronic PovertyThis paper provides a meaning for the term chronic poverty ‘in a nutshell’ and explores the concepts of poverty, vulnerability and poverty dynamics that underpin this meaning. Subsequently, it reviews ‘who’ is chronically poor, ‘why’ they stay poor and what is known about policies to reduce chronic poverty. Despite the limited …
The World Bank’s New Social Protection Model: Conspirational Cash TransfersIs there a conspiracy afoot? Practitioners of social protection have long debated the relative merits of conditional and unconditional cash transfers. Now the World Bank appears to have introduced a third category. We label these “Conspirational” Cash Transfers: cash transfer programmes about which the evidence is either suppressed or massaged …
Building Resilience – Key to Helping Families Bounce Back from Food Security CrisesHow do poor families manage to have enough to eat even in very difficult circumstances? When faced with shocks and economic stress, why do some families bounce back more quickly than others? The EC-FAO Food Security Programme has developed a "Resilience Tool" to help policy makers understand what makes families …
Social Protection for the Poor and Poorest Concepts, Policies and PoliticsSocial protection is fast becoming one of the most important themes in development policy. This collection examines the political processes shaping the formulation of social protection policies; compares the key conceptual frameworks available for analysing social protection; and provides a comparative discussion on the policies focused on the poor and …
Poverty Dynamics: Measurement and Understanding from an Interdisciplinary PerspectiveThis paper introduces a significant new multi-disciplinary collection of studies of poverty dynamics, presenting the reader with the latest thinking by a group of researchers who are leaders in their respective disciplines. It argues that there are three main fronts on which progress must be made if we are to …
Building Resilience and Opportunity: The World Bank’s Social Protection & Labour Strategy 2012-2022 – Concept NoteAlthough the current crisis has proved to be [hard] to remedy, it has taught us that ... while the policy mix will vary according to each country's particular circumstances, social protection needs to be at its centre. The crisis lends new urgency to measures advocated in the original Growth Report, …
Social Safety Net in Bangladesh: An AssessmentDespite considerable progress in reducing poverty over the past 15 years, half of Bangladesh's population is still poor. With a combination of sound macro-economic policies, institutional reforms, and good governance, Bangladesh can achieve the MDG goal of halving the 1990 poverty rate by 2015. However, the extent of poverty and …
Understanding the Scope of Social Protection Measures as Means to Improve Child Well-Being: A Comparison between Document and Reality With special focus on Mymensingh and Netrokona DistrictsBy adopting the Child Rights Convention (CRC) as their basic policy framework, Save the Children Sweden-Denmark is committed to child rights programming (CRP) which prioritizes the best interests of children, works towards the elimination of discrimination and upholds agreed international norms and standards in relation to children's rights to provision, …
Targeting and Universalism in Poverty ReductionFor much of its history, social policy has involved choices about whether the core principle behind social provisioning will be “universalism”, or selectivity through “targeting”. Under universalism, the entire population is the beneficiary of social benefits as a basic right, while under targeting, eligibility to social benefits involves some kind …
Strengthening Social Protection Responses to the Global Economic DownturnIn October 2010 the Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) warned of continued economic downturn, citing a compilation of data from its 33 member nations as well as indicators from several of the world’s largest developing countries, including Brazil, India and China.1 The preceding triple-F crisis (food, fuel, …
Social Protection in South Asia: A ReviewThis paper provides an overview of social protection strategies in the South Asian  context, focusing on Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka which  together account for over 95% of the region’s population. It discusses the  relationship between economic growth and social development in these countries  and their past efforts …
Social Protection and PovertyIn the last decade, social protection has emerged as a policy framework employed to address poverty and vulnerability in developing countries. This report has two main aims: to provide an overview of social protection, and to provide an assessment of its potential contribution to addressing poverty and vulnerability in developing …
Social Protection in Asia: Research Findings and Policy LessonsSocial protection is once again high on the international policy agenda as the multiple crises of recent years have devastated the livelihoods of millions already living in or close to poverty, and increased vulnerability and uncertainty for millions more. The Social Protection in Asia (SPA) research and policy networking programme …
Social Protection and Internal Migration in Bangladesh: Supporting the PoorestThis briefing shows how migration exacerbates the difficulties that many people already face in accessing formal social protection, such as additional income or food. However, it also shows how migration itself can facilitate access to an informal form of social protection for poorer households, even if this is risky and …
The Design and Implementation of Public Works Programs A Toolkit for Practitioners (DRAFT)The objective of this Toolkit is to provide guidance to policy makers and practitioners on ‘how to’ aspects in designing and implementing public works programs. The toolkit draws on past experiences of several country typologies where programs have been in operation and will propose a prototype set of procedures based …
Livelihood Insecurity and Social Protection: A Re-emerging Issue in Rural DevelopmentRisk and vulnerability have been rediscovered as key features of rural livehoods and poverty, and are currently a focus of policy attention. The poor themselves try to manage uncertainty using a variety of ex-ante and ex-post risk management strategies, and through community support systems, but these are both fragile and …
Social Protection and Vulnerability, Risk and Exclusion Across the Life-CycleSocial protection interventions at key stages across the life-cycle contribute towards breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty. Poverty and vulnerability analysis help identify sources of risk and exclusion that are related to life-cycle changes and intergenerational factors, and help inform appropriate social protection responses. Based on a „life-cycle analysis‟, policymakers …
How to design and implement gender-sensitive social protection programmesThis toolkit aims to support policy makers, programme designers, implementers and evaluators to apply a much-needed gender lens to social protection. The past decade has seen a marked spike in policy momentum around the importance of social protection policies and programmes yet there has been very little attention to social …
GENDER AND SOCIAL PROTECTIONSocial protection is an approach towards thinking about the processes, policies and interventions which respond to the economic, social, political and security risks and constraints poor and vulnerable people face, and which will make them less insecure and less poor, and more able to participate in economic growth. More narrowly, …
Effect of payments for health care on poverty estimates in 11 countries in Asia: an analysis of household survey dataBackground Conventional estimates of poverty do not take account of out-of-pocket payments to finance health care. We aimed to reassess measures of poverty in 11 low-to-middle income countries in Asia by calculating total household resources both with and without out-of-pocket payments for health care. Methods We obtained data on payments …
Fighting chronic and extreme poverty in Bangladesh: implications for the second generation Poverty Reduction Strategy PaperThe Government of Bangladesh is currently in the process of preparing the second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. In order to inform this process, this policy brief summarises the poverty situation in Bangladesh with a special focus on chronic and extreme poverty, and suggests key policies for speeding up the reduction …
Social Protection for the Poor and Poorest in Developing Countries: Reflections on a Quiet RevolutionThe concept and practice of social protection in developing countries has advanced at an astonishing pace over the last decade or so. There is a growing consensus around the view that social protection constitutes an effective response to poverty and vulnerability in developing countries, and an essential component of economic …
A review of social protection in South AsiaThis paper provides an overview of social protection strategies in the South Asian context, focusing on Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka which together account for over 95% of the region’s population. It discusses the relationship between economic growth and social development in these countries and their past efforts …
Action Plan for Building a National Social Protection StrategyThis report sets out an action plan for the preparation of a National Social Protection Strategy for Bangladesh by December 2012. It explains the rationale for such a strategy as primarily being rooted in the need for reform in order to support Bangladesh’s progress to middle income country (MIC) status. …
Climate-Responsive Social ProtectionIn the years ahead, development efforts aiming at reducing vulnerability will increasingly have toactor in climate change, and social protection is no exception. This paper sets out the case for  climate responsive social protection and proposes a framework with principles, design features, and  functions  that  would  help  SP  systems  evolve  …
Transforming Livelihoods for Resilient Futures: How to Facilitate Graduation in Social Protection ProgrammesIt is frequently claimed that the most innovative feature of social protection, in contrast to safety nets, is that it has the potential to reduce the vulnerability of poor people to the extent that they can manage moderate risk without external support. This has led to an expansion of large-scale …
Making Social Protection ‘Climate-Smart’Adaptive Social Protection (ASP) aims to reduce the vulnerability of poor people to a range of shocks and ongoing stresses through the integration of social protection (SP), climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR). However there are still few documented examples of social protection programming that specifically accounts …
Connecting Social Protection and Climate Change AdaptationSocial protection initiatives, including cash transfers to the poor and improving the rights of the marginalised, are as much at risk from climate change as other development approaches. They are unlikely to succeed in reducing poverty if they do not consider both the short and long-term shocks and stresses associated …
WORKING PAPER Climate Change Adaptation, Disaster Risk Reduction and Social Protection: Complementary Roles in Agriculture and Rural Growth?Reliance on subsistence agriculture means the impact of stresses and shocks (such as droughts or floods) are felt keenly by rural poor people, who depend directly on food system outcomes for their survival, with profound implications for the security of their livelihoods and welfare. However, such stresses and shocks will …
Climate Change Adaptation, Disaster Risk Reduction and Social Protection : Briefing NoteComprehensive social protection that aims to prevent impoverishment and protect, promote and transform livelihoods and social relations, provides significant opportunities to help people adapt to climate change. Social protection policies and programmes need to consider climate change in order to effectively address the multiple risks and vulnerabilities faced by the …
Climate Change Adaptation, Disaster Risk Reduction and Social ProtectionComprehensive social protection that aims to prevent impoverishment - and protect, promote and transform livelihoods and social relations - provides significant opportunities to help people adapt to climate change. Social protection policies and programmes need to consider climate change in order to effectively address the multiple risk and vulnerabilities faced …
Bringing social protection down to earth: Integrating climate resilience and social protection for the most vulnerableRecent conceptual innovations, such as ‘social protection through a livelihood lens’ (Devereux, 2006), ‘adaptive social protection’ (Davies et al, 2008a), ‘climate change adaptation’ (Davies et al, 2008; Davies and Leavy, 2009), and ‘climate resilience’ (UN/ISDR, 2004; Parry et al, 2007), and ‘the social dimensions of climate change’ (Mearns and Norton, …
Who are the Food Insecure?1. The WFS Plan of Action in its para 20 (a) requested governments, in partnership with all actors of civil society, as appropriate, to develop and periodically update, where necessary, a national food insecurity and vulnerability information and mapping system (FIVIMS), indicating areas and populations, including at local level, affected …
Determination of Food Availabity and Consumption Patterns and Setting up of Nutional Standard in BangladeshThe genesis of this study originates in policy concerns raised in discussions between the Government of Bangladesh represented by the Ministry of Food, and food and nutrition experts drawn from academia, NGOs and development partners. Consumption The core focus of the study is on consumption and calorie-food intake with the …
Food Security Indicators and Framework for Use in the Monitoring and Evaluation of Food Aid ProgramsThe purpose of this guide is to assist in the identification of food security indicators to be used in the monitoring and evaluation of U.S. P.L. 480 Title II food aid programs. Effectively integrating food security indicators into the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems of food-assisted programs will ensure more …
USAID OFFICE OF FOOD FOR PEACE BANGLADESH FOOD SECURITY COUNTRY FRAMEWORK FY 2010-2014The purpose of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Food Security Country Framework (FSCF) for Bangladesh is to provide programming guidance to current and potential USAID/Bangladesh Mission food security partners on the development of Title II-funded multi-year assistance programs (MYAPs) for the period 2010-2014 in Bangladesh, and to …
THE LINKS BETWEEN HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY ANALYSIS (HEA) AND THE INTEGRATED PHASE CLASSIFICATION (IPC)The Integrated Food Security and Humanitarian Phase Classification (IPC) is a system for defining the severity of a situation (from ‘generally food secure’ to ‘famine/humanitarian catastrophe’), based upon a wide range of indicators of the impact of a hazard event on human health and welfare (e.g. mortality rate, nutritional status, …
The impact of food and economic crises on diet and nutritionAbstract Skyrocketing staple food prices in combination with falling incomes around the world raised serious concerns among policy makers, media and the public at large over the past few years. We rigorously explore the dietary and nutritional implications of such shocks in a before, during and after manner. We find …
Admissible Evidence in the Court of Development Evaluation? The Impact of CARE’s SHOUHARDO Project on Child Stunting in BangladeshAlong with the rise of the development effectiveness movement of the last few decades, experimental impact evaluation methods – randomised controlled trials and quasiexperimental techniques – have emerged as a dominant force. While the increased use of these methods has contributed to improved understanding of what works and whether specific …
Seasonal Hunger and Public Policies: Evidence from Northwest BangladeshSeasonal hunger arising from agricultural seasonality persists as a distinctive feature of rural livelihood across many regions scattered throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and tropical Asia. Yet the subject has not received enough attention in contemporary poverty discourses or in global efforts to combat food insecurity. This lack of attention is partly …
A Follow Up Rapid Food Security Assessment in Satkhira in the Context of August 2011 Flood and Water LoggingHeavy rainfall during end of July and early August 2011 caused severe localized flooding in southern districts of Bangladesh namely Satkhira, Jessore, Khulna and Cox’s Bazar. In some areas flood water receded, however some upazilas of Satkhira and Jessore remained under water, a situation referred to as prolonged water logging. This caused …
Right to food: no more a mythThe right to adequate food is realized when every man, woman and child, alone or in community with others, have the physical and economic access at all times to adequate food or means for its procurement..." (General Comment 12, ICESCR) "The States Parties to the present Covenant... shall take... the …
RELATIVE EFFICACY OF FOOD AND CASH TRANSFERS IN IMPROVING FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS OF THE ULTRA-POOR IN BANGLADESHThis study examined the efficacy of food and cash transfers in enhancing food security and livelihoods of the ultra-poor in rural Bangladesh, with a focus on four interventions. The first two are components of the Vulnerable Group Development (VGD) program: (1) IncomeGenerating VGD (IGVGD) and (2) Food Security VGD (FSVGD). …
Global food security assessment guidelines A step-by-step guide for National SocietiesThis guide aims to assist National Society staff and volunteers throughout the world in undertaking food security assessments. It does not require prior knowledge or experience of food security. The guide is a practical tool related to the Food security and nutrition policy, adopted by the International Federation of Red …
Participatory Vulnerability AnalysisThis guide is developed to assist field workers and communities to analyse people’s vulnerability, draw action plans, mobilise resources and enact appropriate policies, laws and strategies to reduce their vulnerability to disaster. There are few guidelines developed by other organisations on how communities can carry out vulnerability analysis (see www.proventionconsortium.org). …
Growing a Better Future: Food justice in a resource-constrained worldNiger is the epicentre of hunger. Here, it is chronic. Corrosive. Structural. Systemic. Over 65 per cent of people survive on less than $1.25 a day.1 Nearly one in two children is malnourished.2 One in six dies before they reach the age of five. Families are fighting a losing battle against soil depletion,  desertification, water scarcity, and unpredictable  weather. They are exploited by a tiny elite of …
Our Food SecurityThe Daily Star Friday, January 20, 2012 Food security plays an important role in social and political stability of a country. But sustaining agricultural growth and food security is a challenge for the present day world, especially for developing countries. Climate change and disasters aggravate the risk further. International organisations …
Life in the Chars in Bangladesh: Improving nutrition and supporting livelihoods through homestead food productionThe riverine sand and silt landmasses known as char in Bengali are home to over 5 million people in Bangladesh.1 These areas are highly vulnerable to sudden and forceful flooding as well as erosion and loss of land, which makes living in the chars both hazardous and insecure. Many char …
FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITYThe importance of optimal nutrition for health and human development is well recognised. At the time of Independence the country faced two major nutritional problems. One was the threat of famine and the resultant acute starvation due to low agricultural production and the lack of an appropriate food distribution system. …
The National Food Policy : Plan of Action (2008-2015)“Attaining food security will be possible through a coordinated implementation of the programmes of all concerned ministries and agencies as set in the plan of action framed in the light of the approved food policy with assistance from the coordinating ministries”, National Food Policy, 2006, Section A- Preamble. The National …
The National Food Policy Plan of Action : A framework for investing in food securityBangladesh has made significant progress in boosting national food production. However, a large part of the population still lacks access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food. In light of renewed and increasing donor commitments to invest in food security, the country now has a unique opportunity to eradicate hunger and …
National Food Policy 2006Food is a basic human need and plays a crucial role in the agro-based economy of Bangladesh, where a large proportion of the income of the population is allocated to food. The first and foremost responsibility of the State is to ensure an uninterrupted supply of food to all people …
Desk Review: The effects of Food Aid on Household Migration Patterns and Implications for Emergency Food AssessmentsMany of the people that the World Food Programme (WFP) assists in its emergency programmes have migrated as a result of a natural or human-made disaster. This report examines migration as it is practiced by people not only as a result of a crisis, but also as a strategy to …
Does A Wife’s Bargaining Power Provide More Micronutrients to Females – Evidence from Rural BangladeshUsing calories in a unitary framework, previous literature has claimed lack of gender inequality in intrahousehold food distribution. This paper finds that while there is lack of gender disparity in the calorie adequacy ratio, the disparity is prominent among children, adolescents, and adults for a number of critical nutrients. Pregnant …
The Relevance Of Livelihoods Approaches To Food Insecurity MeasurementA core aim of this paper is to situate the discussion of food security and livelihoods approaches in the broader context of the evolution and application of livelihoods approaches across departments within FAO and elsewhere, and draw practical lessons for FIVIMS. This Annex provides some initial background on linkages between …
Re-emergence of Food Insecurity in Bangladesh? Instability in Food Production and Prices, Nature of Food Markets, Impact and PolicyThe overall theme of this study is agricultural market performance with a particular focus on food markets, especially in the face of acute market volatility. The study consists of four subthemes as follows: 1. “Assessing instability in food prices and production over time: this part provides context to the subsequent …
IMPROVING THE ANALYSIS OF FOOD INSECURITY – FOOD INSECURITY MEASUREMENT, LIVELIHOODS APPROACHES AND POLICY: APPLICATIONS IN FIVIMSSince the mid-1990s, livelihoods-based approaches have increasingly come to dominate the analysis of poverty and food insecurity, and the design of anti-poverty and famine prevention interventions, especially at the local (community to district or ‘food economy zone’) level. There is a growing consensus on the usefulness of livelihoods approaches for …
Validation of the World Food Programme’s Food Consumption Score and Alternative Indicators of Household Food SecurityABSTRACT The objective of this study is to validate the World Food Programme’s (WFP) method of establishing the prevalence of food insecurity. WFP’s method has two parts: (1) the construction of a Food Consumption Score (FCS) and (2) the classification of food security status based on the FCS. Our validation …
Operationalizing Household Food Security in Development Projects: An IntroductionSome development agencies and academics regard the concept of household food security—often defined as "access for all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life"—as a guiding principle for designing interventions in rural areas. Although there is a large literature on food security, much of its focus lies …
Rapid Appraisal Methods for the Assessment, Design, and Evaluation of Food Security ProgramsProject managers in charge of implementing activities that address food security problems need tools to (1) identify the populations that are food insecure, (2) design interventions that address the causes of food insecurity, and (3) evaluate the impact of their interventions on the food security status of project beneficiaries. This guide illustrates how …
Choosing Outcome Indicators of Household Food SecurityMany development agencies regard the concept of household food security—often defined as adequate access to food at all times, throughout the year and from year to year—as a guiding principle for designing interventions in rural areas. A commitment to household food security carries with it an important implication for development practitioners, namely the …
Designing Methods for the Monitoring and Evaluation of Household Food Security Rural Development ProjectsIn recent years, many development agencies have made intensive efforts to improve their efficiency and increase their impact on rural poverty. At the heart of this new strategic management process is the measurement of performance. With Household Food Security (HFS) and nutritional security now clearly identified as desired outcomes of many development projects, there …
Measuring Nutritional Dimensions of Household Food SecurityImproved nutrition is seen by many development agencies as a direct investment in human development that enhances the productivity of labor. This can be done both by strengthening the household resource base for food, and by enhancing target groups' control and management of these resources. Furthermore, through collaboration with various development agencies oriented towards …
Measuring Food Security Using Household Expenditure SurveysFood insecurity continues to be a major development problem across the globe, undermining people’s health, productivity, and often their very survival. Efforts to overcome the development challenges posed by food insecurity necessarily begin with accurate measurement of key indicators at the household level. This is due to the fact that …
Indicators and Data Collection Methods for Assessing Household Food Security – Part IIThe purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the various indicators and data collection methods that has been used for assessing household food security (HFS). Click on the image to view
Household Food Security: Concepts, Indicators, Measurements – A Technical ReviewThe purpose of the paper is to clarify concepts and definitions of household food security. The literature on food security has spiralled since 1970s and the paper is based on a review of more than 180 items dealing with concepts and definitions. Click on the image to view
Household Food Security: Concepts and Definitions – An Annotated Bibliography – Part IIIThis annotated bibliography contains nearly 200 items which together trace developments in the concept of household food security. The concept of "food security" is found as early as 1970s, but construct of "household food security" is more recent: the bulk of the literature dates from the 1980s. The evolution of …
Household Food Security: A Conceptual Review – Part IThe purpose of the paper is to clarify concepts and definitions of household food security. The literature on food security has spiralled since the 1970s and the paper is based on a review of more than 180 items dealing with concepts and definitions. Click on the image to view
A Selected Annotated Bibliography on Indicators with Application to Household Food Security – Part IVThe annotated bibliography contains a selection of works dealing with indicators for assessing food security. While it contains some references on indicators used at the national or regional level, the major focus is oriented towards those that can help identify villages or households with food insecure situations. It was compiled …
Improving Diet Quality and Micronutrient Nutrition: Homestead Food Production in BangladeshABSTRACT A critical yet often overlooked component of food security is diet quality. Even households who have access to sufficient amounts of food and calories may still lack essential micronutrients, increasing their risk for both short- and long-term health and development consequences. Interventions that address poor diet quality and related …
Validation of a Measure of Household Hunger for Cross Cultural UseFood security occurs when “all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and healthy life.” This definition of food security is founded on three fundamental elements: adequate food availability, adequate access to food by all people and appropriate …
Fact sheets on Food and Nutrition Security Indicators/Measures: Household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS)Household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS),  - as developed by Food and Nutrition Technical Assi stance (FANTA) Project. UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM STANDING COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION Click on the image to view
Network HPN Paper – Food-security assessments in emergencies : a livelihoods approachAbstract This paper describes the theory and practice of Oxfam GB’s livelihoods approach to assessing food security in emergencies. A livelihoods approach simply means emergency programming aimed at supporting livelihoods, as well as saving lives. In terms of food-security assessments, a livelihoods approach involves assessing the longer-term risks to livelihoods, …
BACKGROUND PAPER: The Concept of Food and Nutrition SecurityFood security, an important element of poverty reduction, is a one of the priority foci of German development cooperation with partner countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America / Caribbean. Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) has evolved significantly during the last decades in theory and practice. This overview provides some …
Increasing Food Prices and Food Security: Diagnostic Issues and Policy OptionsIn spite of some moderation in recent months, increased food prices appear to be here to stay and continue to be a matter of grave concern. Especially worrisome are high cereal prices, as cereals make up a major and necessary part of the diet of poor households, and account for …
Food Security and Social ProtectionThe objective of this paper is to inform DFID’s position paper on social protection about the ways in which food security issues should be taken into account in developing social protection policies, strategies and programmes. Interestingly, the international debates surrounding food security have already covered much of the territory now …
Food Security: Imperative for good governanceThe Daily Star Friday, October 29, 2010 BANGLADESH'S progress in poverty reduction and move towards food self-sufficiency has been noteworthy. But while numbers hint at a success story, a more nuanced look at the story behind the numbers may bring little comfort. Over 40% of the population still lives below …
FOOD SECURITY A Review of Literature From Ethiopia to IndiaThis  review  provides  the  theoretical  framework  for  any  research  on  food  security  and  social  protection  through  Employment  Generation  Schemes.  It  presents  a  ‘conceptual  geography’  of  important works of literature related to  the latest evidence and informed by the  best  international  experience.  The  subject of hunger can be tackled from  rights, …
Food as a Human RightAt present about 135 million people are living below the poverty line. Most of them live in the Asia Pacific region and Sub Saharan Africa. The recent food price hike along with the global financial crisis and economic recession lead to an increase of the number of hungry and unnourished …
Food and nutrition security in poverty alleviation: Concepts, strategies, and experiences at the German Agency for Technical CooperationPoverty alleviation and food and nutrition security remain one of the priority areas of development policies for the German government. Poverty exists when individuals or groups are not able to satisfy their basic needs adequately. Poverty consists of at least three dimensions: (i) the availability of essential resources for basic …
Female Decision-Making Power and Nutritional Status within Bangladesh’s Socio-economic ContextDevelopment efforts have brought about major changes in Bangladesh over the last decade1-3, yet the nutritional situation of women and children in Bangladesh is still of great concern. Gender equality and the improvement of child nutritional status are related and are centered in the first and third Millennium Development Goal …
An Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Food SecurityFood security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Click on the image to view
Stories from the field: The National Food Policy and Plan of ActionSince the global food crisis of 2007-08, donor commitments to invest in food security and agricultural development have increased drastically. For instance, at the July 2009 G8 summit in L'Aquila, donors committed to invest USD 20 billion in food security and agriculture over three years, both multilaterally and bilaterally. New …
Food Security: Understanding and Meeting the Challenge of PovertyOne in five people today suffer from hunger and malnutrition, the effects of which on the physical and mental growth of those affected can be irreversible in some cases. Not only is hunger morally unacceptable, but it also acts as a brake on economic and human development in the poorest …
Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in Asia and The PacificIt seems surprising that a region that has in many ways been so successful should still have serious problems with something as basic as food. This is partly because most governments have been neglecting agriculture, but also because many people cannot afford the food they need for an active and …
Monitoring the changes in socio-economic & nutritional status of extreme poor householdsMethods behind the longitudinal panel survey Click on the image to view
The nutrition agenda in Bangladesh: ‘Too massive to handle’?Bangladesh was one of the 36 countries with more than 20 per cent stunting rates on which the Lancet Nutrition Series focused its investigation of the effects of nutrition interventions (Bhutta et al 2008). In 2009, it was included in the WHO’s landscape analysis of nutrition governance, which judged it …
Determinants of Malnutrition in Bangladesh – NSP Bulletin 17The prevalence of malnutrition in Bangladesh remains among the highest in the world. Persistent malnutrition contributes not only to widespread failure toward meeting the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving poverty and hunger, it also undermines efforts to reach MDGs relating to material and child health, HIV/AIDS, education, and …
Cost of Nutritious DietExperiences from Gaibandha District of Bangladesh Click on the image to view
Suggested Core Indicators for Monitoring Food Security StatusIn CFS:2000/2 recent developments for monitoring trends of food security and measuring vulnerability were presented. In this context the need for a list of core indicators for monitoring World Food Summit follow-up was pointed out. It was stressed that the list should be drawn from the Key Indicator Database System …
Food Security: Building on a success storyBangladesh has made commendable progress in domestic food grain, especially rice production due to rapid dissemination of HYV technology. However, while Bangladesh has experienced steady progress in food availability, the country faces a number of persistent and emerging challenges. Future agricultural growth and food as well as nutrition security are …
Food Security and Budget: The Perspectives of the MarginalizedThe issue of food security has recently attained increased global attention. Bangladesh has been facing tougher challenges in this regard as well. If the pace of inflation, particularly the food inflation continues unabated, the poverty situation will surely worsening our country as well. The upcoming budget will , therefore, have …
Implications for Human Development – Impacts of Food Price Volatility on Nutrition and SchoolingImran Matin, Monira Parveen, Narayan Chandra Das, Nick Mascie-Taylor  and Selim Raihan   This Policy Brief discusses the impacts of the 2007/08 food price inflation on nutrition and on school attendance. It draws on the results of studies commissioned by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). Even at times …
Monitoring the Situation of Children And Women – Key Findings of the Bangladesh Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009INTRODUCTION Properly planned and conducted household surveys are the most reliable mechanism to assess progress regarding achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in countries where the routine development outcome or impact information is not readily available. The analysis of the 2000, 2003 and 2006 MICSs data indicated that considerable disparities …
Bangladesh – Tackling Child Malnutritionthe poor nutritional status of Bangladeshi women and children undermines the health and wellbeing of all Bangladeshis and hinders progress towards achieving millennium Development goal (mDg) targets on maternal and child mortality and poverty. Nationally, 48.6% of children under age five are stunted or short for their age; 13.3% are …
FOOD SECURITY IN BANGLADESH Achievement and challengesThe Daily Star Wednesday, March 20, 2013 Dr Mahabub Hossain One of the fundamental rights of the citizens stipulated in the Bangladesh Constitution is food security for all. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to maintain healthy and productive …
Accelerating Reductions in Undernutrition What can nutrition governance tell us?In order to accelerate progress on undernutrition reduction we need to understand how the governance of nutrition programmes leads to successful outcomes. Based on evidence from six countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Peru and Zambia, this briefing informs government leaders, policymakers and key stakeholders of the Scaling Up Nutrition movement …
A Life Free From HungerAs world leaders have been occupied with one economic crisis after another, a hunger and malnutrition crisis affecting millions of children has gone unchecked. While the world has been experiencing years of financial turmoil, pervasive long-term malnutrition is slowly eroding the foundations of the global economy by destroying the potential …
A CHANCE TO GROW – How social protection can tackle child malnutrition and promote economic opportunitiesSocial protection aims to make poor people less vulnerable and protect them from extreme deprivation.1 It helps people living in poverty to meet their basic needs, including access to food. Social protection can tackle the immediate and underlying causes of malnutrition, thereby avoiding the lasting damaging effects that malnutrition has …
Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011The 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) is the sixth survey of its kind conducted in Bangladesh. This survey was implemented through a collaborative effort of the National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), ICF International (USA), and Mitra and Associates. The financial support for the survey was …
Working Paper No. 21: Vulnerability to Shocks and Coping Strategies in Rural BangladeshS. R. Osmani Meherun Ahmed   Abstract This paper uses a novel conceptual framework and a large-scale household survey to study the phenomena of crisis and coping in rural Bangladesh. The empirical exercise is composed of two parts. The first part examines the prevalence of various kinds of shocks in …
Working Paper No. 20: Access to Credit and Productivity of Enterprises in Bangladesh: Is there Causality?M. A. Baqui Khalily Md. Abdul Khaleque September 2013 Institute of Microfi nance (InM) Abstract This paper establishes a relationship between access to credit and the factor productivity of enterprises using the data collected through a nationally representative household survey conducted by InM in 2010. The survey data show that …
Expanding Social Protection for Health: Towards Universal CoverageThe Health Care Financing Strategy 2012-2032 provides a framework for developing and advancing health financing in Bangladesh.  The strategy is aligned with the vision of the Health, Population and Nutrition Sector Development Program (HPNSDP) 2011-2016, the universal coverage as defined by WHO, and the National Health Policy 2011 that recognizes …
Working Paper No. 18: The Pattern and Determinants of Poverty in Rural Bangladesh: 2000-2010Abstract Three aspects of rural poverty in Bangladesh have been examined in this paper: the trend of poverty over the decade of the 2000s, the evolving pattern of poverty among different population groups over the same decade, and identification of the major determinants of poverty in rural Bangladesh. For the …
Working Paper No. 17: Micro Health Insurance in Bangladesh: Innovations in Design, Delivery and Distribution ChannelsSyed M. Ahsan Syed Abdul Hamid Shubhasish Barua Mohammad Rifat Haider Chowdhury Abdullah Al Asif Bangladesh needs to start afresh with innovative means of financing the provision of health care since in its absence the poor end up relying largely on self-insurance devices to mitigate health risks, which entails high …
Is Extreme Poverty Going to End? An Analytical Framework to Evaluate Progress in Ending Extreme PovertyNobuo Yoshida Hiroki Uematsu Carlos E. Sobrado Abstract The World Bank has recently adopted a target of reducing the proportion of population living below US$1.25 a day at 2005 international prices to 3 percent by 2030. This paper reviews different projection methods and estimates the global poverty rate of 2030 …
Learning4Change – A Plan International Bangladesh PublicationsA Plan International Bangladesh Production Learning4Change, Issue 2, October 2013 "CHILDREN REPRESENT THE MOST vulnerable members of society with an inadequate legal system offering little or no protection from the abuses they suffer. One such instance of abuse that children, particularly female children suffer is the incidence of child marriages. …
A Simple Poverty Scorecard for BangladeshMark Schreiner 28 March 2013 Abstract  This study uses Bangladesh’s 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to construct an easy-to-use scorecard that estimates the likelihood that a household has expenditure below a given poverty line. The scorecard uses ten simple indicators that field workers can collect in about ten minutes, …
Poverty, Vulnerability and Inequality in BangladeshDr. Bazlul H Khondker This paper aims to undertake an assessment of poverty profiles by different attributes such as areas of residence, divisions, gender and age groups, and by different poverty lines. Poverty analysis here is mainly based on the available Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2010 data. An …